**tactile** introduces new panel functions to the latticeverse.

`panel.ci()`

: confidence intervals`panel.ci()`

adds confidence bands around a line using arguments `lower`

and `upper`

. This is usually of interested after, for instance, having fitted a model and then made predictions using that model.

As an example, we will try to predict petal width from petal length and speices, using the `iris`

dataset.

```
mod <- lm(Petal.Width ~ Petal.Length*Species, data = iris)
newdat <- expand.grid(Petal.Length = seq(1, 7, by = 0.1),
Species = c("setosa", "versicolor", "virginica"))
pred <- predict(mod, newdat, interval = "confidence")
dd <- cbind(newdat, pred)
```

Having predicted values across our grid, we now plot the predictions, including 95% confidence levels using the following lines.

```
library(tactile)
xyplot(fit ~ Petal.Length, groups = Species, data = dd,
prepanel = prepanel.ci, auto.key = list(lines = TRUE, points = FALSE),
ylab = "Petal Width",
xlab = "Petal Length",
lower = dd$lwr,
upper = dd$upr,
type = "l",
panel = function(...) {
panel.ci(..., alpha = 0.15, grid = TRUE)
panel.xyplot(...)
})
```

Also note the use of the `prepanel.ci()`

function that we provide the `prepanel`

argument with so that the axis limits are set properly.

`panel.qqmathci()`

: confidence intervals for `lattice::qqmath()`

`panel.qqmathci()`

is designed to be used together with `lattice::qqmath()`

and `lattice::panel.qqmathline()`

to provide confidence intervals for the theoretical quantities. A rather contrived example follows.

```
qqmath(~ height | voice.part, aspect = "xy", data = singer,
prepanel = prepanel.qqmathline,
distribution = qnorm,
ci = 0.9,
panel = function(x, ...) {
panel.qqmathci(x, ...)
panel.qqmathline(x, ...)
panel.qqmath(x, ...)
})
```